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    Sincethe U. Duringthe U. In total, the U. This map depicts the general location of the sixteen weather and climate disasters assessed to cause at least one billion dollars in direct damages during Inthe U. This graphic, sometimes called a "Haywood Plot" shows the month-by-month accumulation of billion dollar disasters for each year on record.

    The value for a given year for a given month shows the total number of billion-dollar events that had occurred by that month. Note that there is considerable overlap, and some years' traces are obscured.

    Each of these destructive hurricanes now joins Katrina and Sandy, in the new top 5 costliest U. This graphic depicts the accumulation in the estimated cost of billion dollar weather and climate disasters on a monthly basis, for each year since Billion-dollar Disasters of The following U.

    Harvey is the closest modern disaster comparison we have in relation to Katrina in terms of damage costs.

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    Harvey was a category 4 hurricane making landfall near Rockport, Texas and causing widespread damage. A flooded neighborhood on the Texas coast on August 27,during Hurricane Harvey. Harvey's devastation was most pronounced due to the large region of extreme rainfall producing historic flooding across Houston and surrounding areas. More than 30 inches of rainfall fell on 6. In early September, Hurricane Irma devastated the Florida Keys with its high winds and storm surge, after flattening the U.

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    Irma was another category 4 hurricane when it made landfall at Cudjoe Key, Florida after devastating the U. Severe wind and storm surge damage also occurred along the coasts of Florida and South Carolina.

    Jacksonville, FL and Charleston, SC received near-historic levels of storm surge causing significant coastal flooding. Irma maintained a maximum sustained wind of mph for 37 hours, the longest in the satellite era. Irma also was a category 5 storm for longer than all other Atlantic hurricanes except Ivan in Maria was comparable to Irma in its maximum wind damage, but also similar to Harvey in the feet of rain it dumped across Puerto Rico.

    Maria made landfall in southeastern Puerto Rico as a category 4 hurricane, after striking the U. Virgin Island of St. Maria's extreme winds caused widespread devastation to Puerto Rico's transportation, agriculture, communication and energy infrastructure. This damage was made more severe by the tremendous rainfall up to 37 inches, which caused widespread flooding and mudslides across the island.

    The interruption to commerce and standard living conditions will be the case for years, as much of Puerto Rico's infrastructure has to be entirely rebuilt.

    Maria tied Hurricane Wilma for the most rapid intensification, strengthening from tropical depression to a category 5 storm in 54 hours. Maria's landfall at Category 4 strength gives the U. Western Wildfires, California Firestorm: In addition to the historic hurricanes, the U.

    Montana in particular was affected by wildfires that burned in excess of 1 million acres. These wildfire conditions were enhanced by the preceding drought conditions. However, the height of the wildfire season occurred in October, as a historic firestorm damaged or destroyed over 15, homes, businesses and other structures across central California and caused 44 deaths. The Thomas fire was one of several California blazes that could have qualified as a billion-dollar disaster on its own.

    This infrared-enhanced satellite image shows the large burn scar rapsberry color north of Los Angeles.

    Ongoing fires can be seen along the edge of the burn scar in the northern part of the figure. Incredibly, another California firestorm developed in early December from persistent Santa Ana winds and extremely dry conditions. These wildfires burned over 1, homes and structures in southern California. The largest was Thomas fire that consumed overacres making it the largest California wildfire on record.

    It is worth noting that none of the top 20 largest California wildfires have occurred after October, making the Thomas fire temporally unprecedented and a harbinger of longer western wildfire seasons. Looking at the bigger picture The years and each had a historically high number of billion-dollar disasters that impacted the U. However, inthe U.

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    A winter storm with billion-dollar impacts was the only missing event type during The orange colors were chosen to emphasize the rising contribution of two event types to the total annual costs: Another similarity between and is the continuation of billion-dollar non-tropical inland flood events.

    The last two years continue the trend of multiple, billion-dollar inland flood event impacts, as have observed more frequently in the U. Distribution of costs and fatalities by disaster type The distribution of damage from U.


    Billion-dollar disaster events from to as of January 8, is dominated by tropical cyclone losses. Hurricanes are responsible for slightly more than half This total now includes the initial cost estimates for Hurricanes Harvey, Irma and Maria, which are continually being assessed and will be updated during our 4th quarter release.

    Tropical cyclones and flooding represent the second and third most frequent event types 38 and 28respectively. This table depicts the breakdown, by hazard type, of the billion dollar weather and climate disasters assessed since The rising frequency of billion-dollar disaster events The U. From —, the annual average number of billion-dollar events is 5. For the most recent 5 years —the annual average is The increase in population and material wealth over the last several decades are an important factor for the increased damage potential.

    These trends are further complicated by the fact that many population centers and infrastructure exist in vulnerable areas like coasts and river floodplains, while building codes are often insufficient in reducing damage from extreme events. Climate change is also paying an increasing role in the increasing frequency of some types of extreme weather that lead to billion-dollar disasters.

    Most notably the rise in vulnerability to drought, lengthening wildfire seasons and the potential for extremely heavy rainfall and inland flooding events are most acutely related to the influence of climate change NCA The geography of billion-dollar disaster events by type The U. The maps below reflect the frequency with which each state has been part of a billion-dollar disaster event i.

    These maps depict the number of times each state has been affected by each of six types of billion dollar weather and climate disasters. Note that each state did not necessarily experience a full billion-dollar cost for an event to be counted; it only needed to be part of a regional event that caused one billion dollars or more in direct damages.

    Each disaster type has a distinct footprint of impact over time. We see wildfire impacts largely west of the Plains states, including a few Southeast impacts. The high-frequency inland flooding events often occur in states adjacent to large rivers or the Gulf of Mexico, which is a warm source of moisture to fuel rainstorms. Drought impacts are most focused in the Southern and Plains states where there are billions of dollars in agriculture and livestock assets.

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    Crop freeze events have become more sporadic since the early s, but these events can still cause considerable damage in the fruit-producing states of California, Florida and other Southeastern states such as Georgia and South Carolina. Damage was most severe in Georgia and South Carolina. Severe local storm events are common in the Plains and into the Ohio River Valley states.

    This map depicts the number of billion dollar weather and climate disasters affecting each state, sinceregardless of hazard type. Note that each disaster did not necessarily cause one billion dollars in damages in an individual state to be included in this total. In total, from —, the U. The South region has also suffered the highest cumulative damage costs reflecting the cumulative diversity, frequency and severity of weather and climate events impacting these regions.

    This map depicts the total estimated cost borne by each state, from billion dollar weather and climate events.
    Early versions[ edit ] The earliest illustration of a penjing is found in the Qianling Mausoleum murals at the Tang-dynasty tomb of Crown Prince Zhanghuaidating to They brought back many Chinese ideas and goods, including container plantings.

    In the medieval period, recognizable bonsai were portrayed in handscroll paintings like the Ippen shonin eden Wooden tray and dish-like pots with dwarf landscapes on modern-looking wooden shelves also appear in the Kasuga-gongen-genki scroll.

    Indwarf trees displayed on short poles were portrayed in the Boki Ekotoba scroll. A close relationship between Japan's Zen Buddhism and the potted trees began to shape bonsai reputation and esthetics. One of the monks' activities was to introduce political leaders to various arts of miniature landscapes as admirable accomplishments for men of taste and learning. Japanese artists eventually adopted a simpler style for bonsai, increasing focus on the tree by removing miniatures and other decorations, and using smaller, plainer pots.

    The monk is a disguised official who later rewards the samurai for his actions. In later centuries, woodblock prints by several artists depicted this popular drama. There was even a fabric design of the same name. Through these and other popular media, bonsai became known to a broad Japanese population. Bonsai cultivation reached a high level of expertise in this period. Bonsai dating to the 17th century have survived to the present. One of the oldest-known living bonsai trees, considered one of the National Treasures of Japancan be seen in the Tokyo Imperial Palace collection.

    In the Tenmei era —88an exhibit of traditional dwarf potted pines began to be held every year in Kyoto. Connoisseurs from five provinces and neighboring areas would bring one or two plants each to the show in order to submit them to visitors for ranking. This work had a large influence on bonsai during the Edo period.

    This word connoted a shallow container, not a deeper bowl style. The popularity of bonsai began to grow outside the limited scope of scholars and the nobility. On October 13,the Meiji Emperor moved to his new capital in Tokyo. Bonsai were displayed both inside and outside Meiji Palace, and those placed in the grand setting of the Imperial Palace had to be "Giant Bonsai", large enough to fill the grand space.

    An Artistic Bonsai Concours was held in Tokyo infollowed by publication of a three-volume commemorative picture book. This event demonstrated a new tendency to see bonsai as an independent art form. Modern bonsai tools left to right: Inshaping with wire rather than the older string, rope, and burlap techniques, appeared in the Sanyu-en Bonsai-Dan History of Bonsai in the Sanyu nursery.

    Zinc-galvanized steel wire was initially used. Expensive copper wire was used only for selected trees that had real potential. Properly treated, this indentation would fill over with live tree tissue and bark over time, greatly reducing or eliminating the usual pruning scar.

    Prior to World War IIinternational interest in bonsai was fueled by increased trade in trees and the appearance of books in popular foreign languages. Bythe first national annual bonsai show was held an event repeated annually through in Tokyo's Hibiya Park.

    Dwarf Trees Bonsai by Shinobu Nozaki — Some species of trees were being cultivated, and thousands of specimens annually were shipped to Europe and America. The first bonsai nurseries and clubs in the Americas were started by first and second-generation Japanese immigrants.

    Though this progress to international markets and enthusiasts was interrupted by the war, bonsai had by the s become an art form of international interest and involvement.

    Modern bonsai[ edit ] Following World War II, a number of trends made the Japanese tradition of bonsai increasingly accessible to Western and world audiences. One key trend was the increase in the number, scope, and prominence of bonsai exhibitions. For example, the Kokufu-ten bonsai displays reappeared in after a four-year cancellation and became annual affairs.

    These displays continue to this day, and are by invitation only for eight days in February. A large display of bonsai and suiseki was held as part of Expo '70and formal discussion was made of an international association of enthusiasts.

    So was the first Sakufu-ten Creative Bonsai Exhibitthe only event in which professional bonsai growers exhibit traditional trees under their own names rather than under the name of the owner. These conventions attracted several hundreds of participants from dozens of countries and have since been held every four years at different locations around the globe: Another key trend was the increase in books on bonsai and related arts, now being published for the first time in English and other languages for audiences outside Japan.

    InYuji Yoshimurason of a leader in the Japanese bonsai community, collaborated with German diplomat and author Alfred Koehn to give bonsai demonstrations.

    Koehn had been an enthusiast before the war, and his book Japanese Tray Landscapes had been published in English in Peking. Halford, went on to be called the "classic Japanese bonsai bible for westerners" with over thirty printings. The related art of saikei was introduced to English-speaking audiences in in Kawamoto and Kurihara's book Bonsai-Saikei. This book described tray landscapes made with younger plant material than was traditionally used in bonsai, providing an alternative to the use of large, older plants, few of which had escaped war damage.

    A third trend was the increasing availability of expert bonsai training, at first only in Japan and then more widely. Returning to the U. Other groups and individuals from outside Asia then visited and studied at the various Japanese nurseries, occasionally even apprenticing under the masters. These visitors brought back to their local clubs the latest techniques and styles, which were then further disseminated.

    Japanese teachers also traveled widely, bringing hands-on bonsai expertise to all six continents [40] The final trend supporting world involvement in bonsai is the widening availability of specialized bonsai plant stock, soil components, tools, pots, and other accessory items.

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    Bonsai nurseries in Japan advertise and ship specimen bonsai worldwide. Most countries have local nurseries providing plant stock as well. Japanese bonsai soil components, such as Akadama clay, are available worldwide, and suppliers also provide similar local materials in many locations.

    Specialized bonsai tools are widely available from Japanese and Chinese sources. Potters around the globe provide material to hobbyists and specialists in many countries. There are over twelve hundred books on bonsai and the related arts in at least twenty-six languages available in over ninety countries and territories.

    Several score of club newsletters are available on-line, and there are at least that many discussion forums and blogs. Cultivation and care[ edit ].
    Email Last Updated Aug 24, 1: But other measures of how Americans are doing reveal a darker picture.

    Almost 8 out of 10 American workers say they live paycheck to paycheck to make ends meet, according to a new survey from CareerBuilder. That can force people to take on debt or otherwise struggle when an unexpected bill arises. It also raises questions about the stability of the broader economy given that consumer spending accounts for more than two-thirds of activity. The survey highlights a troubling trend in household finances: More than eight years since the end of the recession, the share of Americans who are living on the financial edge is growing, said Mike Erwin, a spokesman for CareerBuilder.

    While some may want to blame Americans' spendthrift ways, Erwin pointed to two trends that continue to put financial stress on households: It's pretty much across the board, and it's trending in the wrong direction. The study, conducted by Harris Poll, surveyed nearly 2, hiring and human resource managers and 3, adult employees who worked full-time in May and June.

    With the Bureau of Labor Statistics reporting about million full-time workers, the poll suggests 95 million of those adults could be living paycheck to paycheck. Through July, average hourly earnings were up 2. Inflation stood at 1. That means workers' "real" wages were running only slightly ahead of inflation, another obstacle to putting money away.

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    Not only less affluent people are struggling. Almost one of 10 workers who earn more than six figures annually said they are living paycheck to paycheck, according to CareerBuilder. That may seem surprising, but families who live in regions with a high cost of living may feel almost as strapped as lower-income households. The findings add to research about the fragile state of household finances.

    When the Pew Charitable Trusts recently asked Americans whether they'd rather have more income or economic stability, 9 of 10 chose stability.

    Weak wage growth is partly to blame for the financial stress felt by many Americans.

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    Median household income is still stuck in low gear, with the U. Census reporting only one year of income gains sincethe year the recession officially started. American households are still earning 2. At the same time, expenses for food, fuel, education, housing and other costs have risen. About 40 percent of adults with a high school degree or less said they are scrambling to keep afloat, or more than twice the number of Americans with at least a college degree, according to the Federal Reserve.

    Aside from the insecurity of living without a financial cushion, the phenomenon has another downside: It hampers Americans' ability to save for retirement, CareerBuilder noted. About 18 percent of workers said they cut back on their k contributions or personal savings in the last year, and more than one-third don't put away money for retirement, the survey found. Personal responsibility does play a role in Americans' financial problems, with the survey finding that only a third of workers stick to a budget.

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    Asked what spending items they wouldn't give up, more than half said they'd never cut back on their internet connection or mobile devices. That might seem like an extravagance to some, yet the truth is many Americans can't work effectively without internet service at home or a smartphone, with employers increasingly expecting workers to check their email while they're out of the office or be available for a call.

    Yet there are ways to pare spending on those essentials, such as renegotiating contracts with mobile carriers. He added, "Everything is negotiable.
    Each of the pictured bottles has a relatively short description and explanation including estimated dates or date ranges for that type bottle and links to other view pictures of the bottle. Additional links to images of similar bottles are also frequently included. The array of references used to support the conclusions and estimates found here - including the listed dating ranges - are noted.

    Additional information and estimates are based on the empirical observations of the author over 50 years of experience; this is often but not always noted. Various terminology is used in the descriptions that may be unfamiliar if you have not studied other pages on this site.

    If a term is unfamiliar, first check the Bottle Glossary page for an explanation or definition. As an alternative, one can do a search of this website. Figured Flasks Figured flasks is a generic name for the large class of liquor flasks primarily produced between and Due to their esthetic and decorative nature, these flasks were infrequently discarded unless broken so many survived to the present day.

    Figured flasks also include c alabash bottles example belowwhich are covered separately here because of their distinctive shape, and some flasks that fit the form description but are just embossed with lettering, i. Unlike most other types of liquor bottles which are generally more common without embossing, figured flasks are by definition embossed since the embossed motifs and molded designs are what defines them as figured flasks, though many shapes are also unique to this group e.

    Unembossed flasks with shapes similar to some of the later s primarily figured flasks are considered generically in the "Flask not considered figured " category. The figured flasks described here represent a small cross-section of the hundreds of different types made during their heyday. These type items are occasionally found on historic archaeological sites though usually as fragments since they were not usually discarded until broken.

    This book is the source of information on figured flasks and contains by far the most comprehensive listing with illustrations and is the accepted classification system for figured flasks. Here the authors divide figured flasks into 9 distinct "Form Groups" and includes dating ranges for when that form group was first produced. The book also covers most other types of 18th and 19th century American bottles and is an almost mandatory reference for serious students of American made bottles of the 18th and 19th century.

    Because of the beauty - and possibly the intrinsic value - of figured flasks, many have been reproduced at various times during the 20th century. Some of these reproductions are very hard to discern from originals to the inexperienced eye.

    The bottles pictured in this section are all early to midth century originals. Decorative flasks The decorative group of flasks is a category of "pictorial" flasks made up of four primary types: The figured flask pictured to the left and the colorful group of five to the upper right is commonly referred to by collectors as a scroll flask, though in the early days of collecting and probably even now they were referred to as "violin" flasks.

    What 19th century glass makers called these is lost to history. This style of flask was introduced around and were extremely popular through the s and s. Popularity apparently waned by the beginning of the Civil War early s and it appears that very few if any were made after that time.

    Most scroll flasks were likely made by Midwestern glassmakers, though most do not have makers marks to allow for precise attribution. Scroll flasks were primarily made in half-pint, pint most common size by farand quart sizes, though smaller and larger examples are known, including a gallon size. Scroll flasks almost always have some type of pontil scar, i. The range of colors possible in these flasks is almost unlimited, though they were by most commonly made in shades of aquamarine - like the example above.

    Finishes found on these flasks included primarily the following: The aqua scroll flask pictured above is very typical in design and likely dates from the late s or s. Click on the following links for more images of this pint scroll flask from different views: To the right is pictured a very similar pint scroll flask GIX in an unusual yellow green color with a cracked-off and non-refired finish; click thumbnail image to enlarge. Click quart scroll flask to view a picture of a quart sized scroll flask with a double-ring finish.

    This quart scroll also has an iron pontil scar, is classified as GIX-1 or 2, and likely dates from the mid to late s. A colorful grouping of five scroll flasks dating from the late s to late s is also shown at the top of this section above. Another very popular style of early figured flask is referred to as the "sunburst" flask, which encompasses various types based on the molded design on the body.

    Sunburst flasks are among some of the oldest of the figured flasks dating as early as to and as late as the s for a few. Most are believed to have been primarily made by various New England glass works. Sunburst flasks were made in only pint and half-pint sizes. They all have pontil scars - either glass-tipped or blowpipe types - indicating early manufacture. Colors can vary somewhat widely, though the large majority are in shades of olive green and olive amber, various other true greens, shades of amber, and aqua.

    Finishes are typically straight sheared or cracked-off or subtle variations like the rolled, flare, or globular flare typically with with obvious re-firing; and occasionally with hard to classify variations of the double ring, mineral, or others. For more information on sunburst flasks check out the following external link: Click on the following links for more pictures of this flask: As an example of how a given type of bottle can be used or re-used for a non-type typical product, click on the following links: This shows an example of this same type sunburst flask that was used or more likely re-used for "SPTS.

    Spirits of camphor was historically used internally an expectorant and still is used externally muscle aches and pains though is now considered to be a more or less hazardous substance if ingested. It is definitely not a liquor though it has "spirits" in the name. The pint, clear green sunburst flask pictured to the right is an earlier product of same Keene, NH. These flasks are often called "two pounders" by collectors as they are almost decanter-like with heavy glass weighing between 2 and 3 pounds.

    Click the following links to view more pictures of this flask: Some of these flasks have an eagle design instead of the urn on the reverse, but are otherwise very similar. The symbols of the cornucopia and urn were easily recognized during the time as symbolic of the young country's U.

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    Cornucopia flasks were made in only the pint and half-pint sizes. These flasks seem to all have pontil scars - typically either a glass-tipped or blowpipe pontil - reflecting their early manufacturing dates; iron pontils are unusual.

    Colors are once again variable but dominated by olive green, olive amber, other shades of amber and green, and aqua. Finishes are almost always a of the straight sheared or cracked-off varieties or subtle variations like the rolled, flare, or globular flare typically with with obvious re-firing. The pictured flask both sides shown - cornucopia side to above left; urn to right is a product of Coventry Glass Works, Coventry, CT. These flasks are very rare, very early s or early sunusual, and unlikely to be encountered.

    Thus they are not covered. Users can also find some information on these type flasks, including pictures, at the following link: These could also be considered as "historical" flasks by some Munsey Most Masonic flasks have some type of design on the reverse that features an American eagle. These types of flasks are some of the earlier of the figured flasks dating primarily between and the s though a few date as late as the Civil War.

    One of the later type Masonic flasks is covered in the calabash section. These earlier Masonic flasks were only made in pint and less frequently, half-pint sizes. Like most figured flasks, the Masonic flasks can be found in a wide range of colors though most were produced in different shades of aqua, amber, and green olive green, blue-green, olive amber.

    All of these earlier Masonic flasks are pontil scarred, usually of the glass-tipped or blowpipe type. Iron pontils are rare or possibly unknown empirical observations. Finishes are usually straight shearedcracked-off, or rolled with occasional double ring or other simple applied finishes. The above pictured blue-green Masonic flask has a stylized eagle embossed on the reverse and dates between and about It was made in a two-piece hinge mold, has vertically ribbed sides, and a glass-tipped pontil scar on the base.

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    Click on the following links for various view images of this flask: It was also made at the same Keene glassworks as the previous flask, though a decade or more later.

    Click Masonic-eagle reverse to see the other side of this flask. Another shape type variation of Masonic-eagle flask - and a common flask shape during the s, s and s - is pictured to the right. Historical Flasks This grouping of flasks is quite varied as to embossing, design, and shape.

    The unifying theme of these flasks - and what differentiates these flasks from other groups - is their historical connection be it emblematic, symbolic, or human. The most popular image on figured flasks is not surprisingly the American eagle - often embossed on both sides of the flask.

    The diversity of different types of eagles is amazing, ranging from the bold and artistic eagles like shown to the right to stiff and simplistic eagles like shown at this link - Pike's Peak-eagle flask reverse view. In general, the more detailed and artistically pleasing eagles are on the earlier flasks s to s and the more simplistic ones on the later flasks s and s though there are exceptions of course Munsey Eagles or other symbols of the U.

    Because of this shapes, sizes, finishes, mold types, and manufacturing processes vary as widely as the period allows with no particular diagnostic features unique to the group like some of the other figured flask types. The flask pictured above is a "beaded edge" Washington-Eagle flask GI-2 that dates from the s or s and was likely made by an early Pennsylvania glass company. Click on the following links to view more images of this flask: The reverse of this flask features a bust of George Washington and is pictured below.

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    Another variation of the American eagle were the quite artistic versions found on the flasks produced by several Connecticut glass factories. It classifies as GII, has a smooth cup-bottom mold conformation a very unusual mold type for the eraand a crudely applied double ring finish. These flasks were produced using both pontil rods pontil scarred as well as a snap-case tools smooth base. Yet another variation of the American eagle is found on an assortment of highly ornate flasks that may have been made by one of the Louisville, KY.

    This pint flask similar examples also were produced in quart and half gallon sizes has a blowpipe pontil scar, was blown in a two-piece key mold, and is classified as GII The likeness of many people are emblazoned on the sides of figured flasks.

    However, none were as popular as George Washington with at least 72 flasks bearing his likeness. Flasks in this category are a mixed lot with little physical commonality except that they are flasks and made during the figured flask period of to or so.

    Colors, shapes, sizes, finishes, and other manufacturing methods vary as widely as the period allows. There are even a few late 19th century flasks that were produced for Presidential elections Grover Cleveland, William Jennings Bryan, William McKinley that are cataloged within this group.

    The flask pictured to the right is a Washington-Eagle flask GI-2 that was discussed above with links to more pictures of the item. Some of the most common flasks in this category are the Washington-Taylor series of flasks, which contains at least 37 different examples.

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