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    The Ultimate Resource for Militaria Here you will find overitems of militaria for sale on-line You have most likely reached this page from a search engine.

    The item you are searching for can be found on the Why not click on the Enter button below to see the other Dealers on MilitariaMart The following items can be found on the Regimentals websitewith full descriptions, photographs and prices. All in full colour, all except one have been stamped and franked 14th August A pair of the brown pebbled leather boots worn by British officers.

    These are the issue boots, stamped WD to the interior. Horrell Limited' maker marked and '' dated to the interior. A very nice condition 2nd pattern Fairbairn Sykes knife, the blade in its original profile and full length.

    It is complete with its original 2nd pattern scabbard with its brass flat lower chape. Both leg straps are fitted. The wearer has replaced the elasticated belt retaining strap with a piece of riveted canvas. An unusual group of three awards to a Colonel of the 1st Battalion th Infantry Regiment, part of the 72nd Infantry Division. Berndardt was obviously a WWI veteran and who served in the Landespolizie in between the wars.

    Accompanying the three citations are four A4 sized sheets of research, both in text and map form showing the area of operations, deployment and after action reports of the 73rd Infantry Division, which after were all on the Eastern Front and a lot of action in the area of Sevastopol. All of the research put together by the foremost researcher in the U. A group of four white metal painted hollow Diplomatic Service tunic buttons. One of an extensive collection of slouch hats recently purchased by us, this particular example is very much above average in terms of condition.

    It is a Australian made version and worn by a member of the 5th Indian Division. To the side is the red ball of fire upon black insignia in wool. The pagri is good and tight and multi folded.

    The hat is in an excellent low shape.

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    There is the typical Carr Australia press stud, which functions well to the side. The original chin strap is present as is the leather band with the typical Australian maker code marks and a clear date of '43'. The hat is in an excellent shape. The flag which has a large outstretched winged and swastika to one corner of the flag with the large swastika on a white field to the centre. To its canvas selvage edge it is marked 'R. Dienstflg x ', followed by the maker's logo. Some minor staining to the lower central area with one or two tears.

    Generally the flag has good colour and is in good condition for display. Some of the insignia is obviously used and some unused. This Intelligence Officer made his way back to the U. With each item offered we are showing on our internet site a photograph of the grouping as it was found.

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    Many of the items were covered in years of dust and many of the cloth items are slightly distorted. We are showing the items in their original state. For sale we have cleaned and pressed some of the cloth items and they are being offered individually.

    With the grouping there were effects of the officer and a quantity of both allied military Government, Croat and Greek banknotes. The grouping comprises of 2 Hungarian Air Force buttons, 3 Hungarian officers buttons, one Slovakian piece of insignia, the upper part of an Austrian portapee with slight verdigree of oxidisation.

    A pair of combat worn slip-on shoulder boards for a Leutnant in a Reserve Artillery Unit. Slight flooding of the colour of the red wool waffenfarbe onto the silver wire exterior with grey Reserve base colour in wool. Complete with their tabs. This lot collected many years ago represents an excellent set of items.

    The lot consists of a typical military headlight lamp cover, this has much original ordnance tan, however there is rust bleed, pitting and areas of paint loss. It is clear the item has remained either in the soil or on the surface many years after the war. There is an excellent old French collectors label which gives details how the item was found in August of and is from a Panzer one and from the area of Tramol.

    Other elements including couplings, a very large pin for a towing eye Were found in Saintenay in Normandy. The whole lot consists of five elements, most of which have collectors tags still attached to them, these would make a stunning display and all come from the hard fought battle of Normandy. A wonderful new publication from Military Mode Publishing. Afrika Korps by Daniel Fisher is a photographic study of cloth caps and tunics used in Africa by the German Army from the period of The 76 pages hard back book is formatted in a coffee table style, featuring many large size high quality photographs, it give a detailed insight in to the collecting of militaria from the genre.

    The valuable text assists in ways of detecting reproductions as well as spotting regular details found on original artifacts. The book also focuses on insignia worn by the Afrika Korps and it is fast becoming a sort after bible and highly regarded publication that shares the private collection of Daniel Fisher. The valuable text assists in ways of detecting reproductions as well as spotting regular details found on original artefacts.

    The book also focuses on insignia worn by the Afrika Korps and it is fast becoming a sought after bible and highly regarded publication that shares the private collection of Daniel Fisher.

    A relic shoulder strap, cut from a tunic having the secondary fixing tongue removed. The piping is artificial silk, pink in colour to denote Panzer and luftwaffe nco tresse has been field applied as an obvious field upgrade. Often in the field whatever form of rank tresse was available, was used. The woolen under lay field grey denoting an early manufacture. This we believe was the very first book published by Roger James Bender in It is an excellent early work on the Luftwaffe and all the other flying organisations of the Third Reich.

    No edge knocks, stains or damage to any of the pages. Missing its flyleaf cover, this good hardback work first published in describing in huge depth all of the individual units of all the allies fighting in Italy with excellent colour plates with the badges and insignia of all the respective units, even including the Italian units that fought after with the allies.

    An excellent large format Schiffer publication on the history of U. A classic Schiffer high quality publication with its original flyleaf. An extremely good condition knuckleduster knife known as the OSS drop knife, the four round pointed D shaped hilt was made by Foster Brothers and welded onto the tang of the triangular blade of an U.

    Springfield triangular socket bayonet. The scabbard is produced also from the lower half of the bayonet. The grip is produced from solidified rubber grooved tubing, similar in design to bicycle pedal covering.

    A very nicely produced knife overall, said to have been produced to drop to irregular troops operating in the Philippines and other tropical areas. No moth or damage to the exterior, one U. Navy button missing, beautiful quality gilt to the buttons. Gilt rank lace to each sleeve for Commander. Please visit the website by Military Mode if you are looking for any military clothing from the early s to the present day featuring many rare US WWII and Vietnam era jackets.

    A good bright camouflaged zeltbahn, which is RB numbered. Generally in good condition, it has lost its zeltbahn buttons and has one large moth or rodent hole to the centre. A deep gold cockade with its separate national coloured centre. This item is from a large collection of insignia recently been purchased by Regimentals. A complete set of insignia for an Army Artillery Leutnant.

    Red wool based slip-on shoulder boards with canvas fixing tags. The exterior is in subdued grey weave. Some light wear to one board. Complete with the matching wire woven artificial silk red centred collar patches laid onto dark green backing cloth with stitches remaining where removed from the tunic.

    Pen signature to lower right hand side. During WWII the collection of Knights Cross Winners autographs was as important to the youth of Germany, as the collections of baseball cards, cigarette cards, marbles and other items have been for generations of youngster world-wide since.

    We had two complete books of a Hitler Youth collection. We have decided to break the books up, the multi signatures are on the original pages. The single signatures we have removed from the page and have photocopied the original page that will accompany the autograph when purchased. A good removed from cap, grey on black Panzer mans M43 or overseas cap eagle. The excellent story of an Arnhem glider pilot, published inone year after the Arnhem operation. This excellent page written story by one of the glider pilots who had lasted seven days of the battle of Arnhem.

    Only written one year after the event, the events were absolutely fresh in his mind. A really exciting story of heroics and privations endured in that famous battle.

    Regimentals are now accepting pre orders for the forth-coming publication by Military Mode Ltd. The exclusive two volume book will be incredibly limited in stock and each two volume set will be individually numbered and signed by the author.

    The title 'Ausrustung' being the German translation for 'Equipment' is an in-depth guide in to exotic field equipment of the German forces in World War II. Each volume is over pages, bound in hard back format andThe book follows the design of previous Military Mode presentations, packed with large high resolution photographs of items from within a selection of the world's top collections including the author's himself.

    In association with the two leading museums of WWII equipment in the world, the book contains some items never seen or published until now. Limited to only copies, pages.

    Release date October 1st Back by popular demand! The 1st Edition sold out within 5 months and therefore forced a 2nd Edition reprint.
    Types of inspection Inspections are typically scheduled by pharmacovigilance system than by MAH. A pharmacovigilance system is defined as the system used by an organisation to fulfil its legal tasks and responsibilities in relation to pharmacovigilance and designed to monitor the safety of authorised medicinal products and detect any change to their risk-benefit balance.

    If a group of associated MAHs share the same pharmacovigilance system, all MAHs may be included within the scope of a single inspection of that pharmacovigilance system. Conversely, if an MAH operates more than one pharmacovigilance system, we usually review these through separate inspections. The MAH is usually notified of these inspections in advance. If an inspection results in a critical finding it is likely the MAH will be subject to a triggered re-inspection within 12 to 18 months, with a focus on the actions that were agreed following the last inspection.

    If no critical findings are identified there is no specific timeline by which an MAH must be inspected again. The frequency of inspection will be decided using the risk-based approach, and an inspection may be performed at any time. As ofwe no longer require routine GPvP compliance reports to be submitted by MAHs, which were previously used to inform our risk-based inspection programme, as we now have access to a variety of information sources that can support our scheduling and planning activities.

    Occasionally, an organisation may be specifically requested to provide information relating to their authorisations and pharmacovigilance systems. EU inspections The European Medicines Agency EMA co-ordinates a programme of inspections for pharmacovigilance systems that include centrally authorised products.

    The programme is based on a routine four-yearly cycle adopted by the Committee on Human Medicinal Products CHMPhowever, the outcome from national risk assessment may lead to a more frequent scheduling of inspections.

    The conduct of these inspections typically follows the same approach as for routine national inspections. We may send little or no notification of these inspections in advance. The supervisory authority for the inspected organisation will typically lead such an inspection. Often, inspections are requested by CHMP to address a specific issue that may concern more than one national competent authority, and therefore the supervisory authority may be supported by other authorities in the inspection.

    The inspection site may be in a non-EU country dependent on the scope of the inspection and the primary location of pharmacovigilance activities conducted by the MAH. Service Provider inspections Increasingly, MAHs are outsourcing all or some of their pharmacovigilance activities to contract service providers; such activities conducted by these organisations on behalf of MAHs are subject to supervision by MHRAincluding by means of inspection.

    Following a pilot programme of stand-alone service provider inspections, we concluded that a routine programme of inspections of pharmacovigilance service providers is not currently viable for MHRA GPvP inspectorate.

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    Contracts with pharmacovigilance service providers should include provisions that cover the availability of data, documentation and appropriate support to the MAH and inspectors during a GPvP inspection. This information is taken account of when planning our inspections.

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    As part of the inspection notification, the pharmacovigilance system master file PSMF will be requested. You must acknowledge you have received the notification and provide details of the relevant contact person for future correspondence about the inspection. If you have concerns about the authenticity of a notification, contact gpvpinspections mhra.

    In addition to the PSMFinspectors may require supplementary information to confirm the scope of the inspection and to be well prepared. The lead inspector will explain how our document request system works.

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    MAHs can expect to receive requests for documentation prior to the inspection and throughout. Where substantial document review is required prior to the inspection, inspectors may incorporate remote inspection time in to the inspection plan.

    We expect any documents listed in the PSMF to be readily available for inspection. This includes but is not limited to: It is always preferable to conduct face to face interviews, however the inspection team can accommodate interviews by telephone if interviewees are unable to attend the site, provided facilities are adequate to support this.

    If the MAH does not have a UK site and is using a vendor site or hiring office space for the inspection, consideration should be taken to ensure access to WIFI and teleconference facilities if required throughout the inspection, as well as prompt access to printing and copying facilities, and access to all electronic documentation and systems including the live safety database.

    Under UK law, an inspector acting on behalf of MHRA as competent authority has the right, at any reasonable time, to enter premises not limited to those of the MAH to determine if there has been a contravention of the regulations laid out in SI No per Regulation and the right to inspect information and documents relating the requirements for pharmacovigilance laid out in Part 11 of SI No as per Regulation In this instance, on arrival at site the lead inspector will identify the most appropriate person on site as a point of contact and will explain the purpose and logistics of the inspection.

    The inspection During an inspection the inspection team will: They may also change the focus of the inspection if they suspect serious non-compliance. The team and inspection duration Inspection teams are comprised of between one to four inspectors, spending between two and five days on site. This can vary based on type of products marketed by the company, the complexity of the pharmacovigilance system and the type of inspection for example routine, triggered, or requested by CHMP.

    Occasionally observers may also be present at our inspections. The PSMF is used as a tool in determining the resource required to perform the inspection, however this can be subject to change and inspections may be extended at short notice based on arising issues. Extension to inspections may take the form of office-based review of documentation following the on-site inspection, or a return to the inspection site for additional days.

    This would be communicated to the MAH at the time along with the rationale for extending the inspection.

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    Inspection conduct Inspectors normally interview operational personnel that are involved in pharmacovigilance activities or activities associated with pharmacovigilance including regulatory affairs, and management of post-authorisation safety studies.

    If considered necessary, for example if serious issues are identified relating to a business area, it might be necessary to interview a senior executive and senior executive s might be requested to attend the closing meeting. The inspectors typically discuss issues with the MAH as they arise during the inspection to allow for clarification.

    At the closing meeting the inspector will provide feedback and discuss any deficiencies and actions required after the inspection with the MAH.
    Introduction The coastal zone of the Selsey peninsula is an exceptionally complex environment, not least because the well-defined headland of Selsey Bill separates shorelines with different orientations Photo1.

    Because of spatial variation in wave climate, and the effects of both planshape and submerged relief on the local tidal current system, the apex of the peninsula functions as a regionally significant boundary between adjacent sediment transport cells. The presence of offshore and nearshore banks, bars, shoals and reefs adds unusual complications to the sediment budgets of each of the several distinct littoral transport sub-systems.

    Exceptionally rapid erosion over at least the last five millennia has resulted in the submergence of both natural and human-modified coastal landscapes. This legacy has not been fully explored, but has generated considerable speculation over the sequence of coastal evolutionary changes. At the shoreline, a partially swash aligned shingle storm ridge and sandy lower foreshore extends the length of Bracklesham Bay to the Chichester Harbour Inlet.

    The eastern side of the Selsey peninsula is fronted by a drift aligned gravel beach. The hinterland is low-lying, but elevated slightly at East Wittering and Selsey. At Medmerry, the hinterland is close to or below mean sea level and is formed of soft alluvial deposits comprising a reclaimed estuary channel. A weak to moderate net shoreline drift transports sediments from the east to west, although actual drift of shingle is presently very low due to the widespread controlling effects of groynes.

    It is only within the last 50 years that the majority of this coastline has been protected by formal defences and regulated by other shoreline management practices. Artificial control of beach volumes and sediment transport pathways has not succeeded in achieving conditions of shoreline stability at all points; indeed, there are several critical locations where, in future, it may be necessary to allow for natural shoreline behavioural tendencies and relax management controls Posford Duvivier, ; HR Wallingford,; Cobbold and Santema, The former provide the substrate beneath the inter-tidal foreshore and are highly erodible; prior to the construction of comprehensive "hard" defences, coastline recession rates were up to 8ma-1 in places.

    Late Devensian or early Holocene loamy silt 'Brickearth' overlies the Raised Beach and provides the substrate to modern soil profiles. These deposits overlie the most recent of a sequence of marine erosional platforms that extend 25km inland. They have been interpreted as the product of successive Middle Pleistocene sea-level transgressions, punctuated by regressive stages and subsequently displaced by neotectonic movements Bates,; Hodgson, ; Bates, Parfitt and Roberts, Further detail is contained within the separate Section on the Quaternary History of the Solent.

    Subsequent Holocene sea- level rise has therefore released a substantial quantity of sediment, including gravels derived from the ancestral Coastal Plain composed of Raised Beach, Coombe Rock periglacial and River Solent fluviatile terrace materials. Some of this continues to be available as scattered deposits on the seabed, but it is thought that much lies stranded offshore within submerged barrier beaches built during several stages of mid to late Holocene sea-level transgression.

    Wallace and has tentatively identified the foundations of several indurated barrier structures, some of which may have originally been independent barrier islands, separated by tidal passes. Others may have become "anchored" to the predecessors of modern reefs, such as the Mixon, and once extended as far eastwards as Bognor.

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    Strongly indurated, stable cobble " pavements" and large boulders of local Eocene and Oligocene rocks located in water depths in excess of 8m offshore the west and south-west coastlines might be the foundations of barriers that were submerged during one or more stages of rapid sea-level rise. Others continued to be driven landwards, probably by storms, to eventually produce modern barrier forms, as at Medmerry and Church Norton beach and spit.

    Overstepping of relict ebb deltas, banks and shoals, adjusted to earlier sea-level stillstands, is also likely to have occurred. Bone and Wallace offer several speculative dates for barrier breaching and reformation.

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    Part of the substantial sediment resource of earlier gravel barriers has been redistributed to modern stores such as the Kirk Arrow spit; the Inner Owers; and the Pagham Harbour spits and tidal delta.

    Wallace and has attempted to fit a chronology of stages of sea-level rise to the apparent evidence of barrier breaching, breakdown and submergence. Evidence of brackish and estuarine sediments offshore Medmerry does suggest the former existence of a back-barrier lagoon that formed during a phase of sea-level stability; however, knowledge of the precise distribution and age of these sediments is insufficient to provide a more specific timeframe for barrier evolution.

    Archaeological and sedimentological evidence supports the reconstruction of a continuous tidal creek linking Pagham Harbour with Bracklesham Bay Heron-Allen, ; Millward and Robinson, ; Hinchcliffe, ; Wallace, and ; Castleden, ; Bone, ; Thomas, This may date back at least 2, years, perhaps resulting from a major breach of an earlier Bracklesham Bay barrier beach at Medmerry Wallace, The Medmerry barrier is believed to have reformed and breached several times during subsequent centuries; at times isolating the Selsey peninsula as an island.

    Archaeological evidence demonstrates that the coastline was some 2 to 3km seawards of where it is now at about 5, years Before the Present Cavis-Brown, ; White, ; Wallace,and ; Aldsworth, ; Goodburn, ; Thomas, Coastal erosion over this period must have occurred at a rate at least as fast as that recorded for the nineteenth and first half of the twentieth centuries May, Documentary evidence for the medieval period Bone, also indicates rapid coastline recession, especially during major storms.

    The latter probably caused the Medmerry barrier to repeatedly breach and break down, although there is reliable evidence that it was in place in the mid-sixteenth century. Stratigraphy from shallow boreholes into sediments infilling the former tidal creek isolating Selsey Hinchcliffe, ; Wallace, clearly indicate oscillations between lagoon and brackish water conditions.

    A barrier spit may have connected Selsey Island with the mainland in the sixth century AD, but was permanently removed by a storm surge of exceptional magnitude in Reclamation of some hectares of saltmarsh occupying the tidal channel between Pagham Harbour and Medmerry was achieved when the Broad Rife sluice was built in Photo3.

    This was undertaken in response to back barrier flooding resulting from a large pulse of gravel drift that blocked the Medmerry exit of this stream in Bone, Further temporary blockages occurred inand before stabilisation of its present mouth in The approximately triangular shape of the Selsey peninsula results from the protective presence of the Mixon reef some 2. This feature is composed of a relatively resistant Eocene calcareous Alveolina limestone cap rock overlying Bracklesham sands and clays.

    Wallace, and has described a well-defined valley, up to 25m in depth and scoured by tidal currents, to the immediate south of the Mixon. The Outer and Malt Owers and The Streets are smaller bedrock reefs, but other offshore banks within 3km of the modern coastline appear to be sediment accumulations.

    They may be relict parts of a multistage barrier structure that was progressively segmented and submerged between 2, and years before the present Wallace, ; A remnant area of lagoonal and colluvial sediment that accumulated behind this structure survives inland of East Beach.

    Very fast erosion of this weak material occurred in the 50 years prior to the completion of coastal defences in Wallace ; has speculated that the Mixon reef formed a part of the coastline in early Romano-British times.

    It may have "anchored" the contemporary position of the barrier beach mentioned above. A 17m deep sediment-infilled v-shaped gap between the Mixon and Malt Owers mark the course of the ancestral River Lavant.

    The latter is likely to have discharged via what is now Pagham Harbour prior to its diversion to Chichester and Fishbourne by Roman engineers in the second century A. Wallace also suggests that the proto-Lavant followed the line of the buried channel that runs roughly parallel to the modern East Beach coastline some m offshore.

    This feature has been largely infilled with late Holocene sediments, but continues to act as a local trap of mobile gravel during winter months. Some of this material is stabilised by weed growth during summer months, and may subsequently be transported by rafting to supply the Inner Owers and Kirk Arrow gravel accumulations.

    The strike-directed east to west valley south of the Mixon may also have been part of the course of an ancestral Lavant river. Barrier breaching and shoreline recession associated with rising sea-level and storm events caused The Mixon to become an offshore bank, or shoal, probably at about AD Wallace, It would have been emergent during mean low water, whilst the Inner Owers would, by this time, have been fully submerged.

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    The Mixon therefore acquired its reef-like form and function from early medieval times onwards as sea-level rose further and both tide and wave-induced currents caused bedrock scour.

    The early ebb stage, gives rise to rectilinear, nearshore parallel, residual currents off the east-facing coastline. This stream moves towards the banks and reefs south of the Bill, where it is confined and movement is determined by their alignment.

    Maximum surface currents offshore the of apex of the peninsula are between 1. The protrusion of the Selsey peninsula into this net eastwards moving tidal stream creates an anticlockwise circulating gyre, or "back-eddy" to the north-east, where residual current speeds are between 0. A smaller, clockwise moving eddy between The Streets reef and Kirk Arrow spit is set up when the ebb tidal flow is east to west Wallace, The offshore wave climate is dominated by waves from the south and south-west with periodic episodes of less energetic waves from the south-east.

    However, the shoreline wave climates are complex, as the east and west facing coastlines have contrasting orientations and western parts of Bracklesham Bay are partially sheltered by the Isle of Wight.

    Selsey Bill and East Beach are directly exposed to waves approaching from the south and east, but they also receive highly oblique refracted and diffracted swell waves that propagate from the south- west HR Wallingford, ; ; ; West and north-west of Selsey Bill, dominant wave approach is from the south-west and wave crests are frequently parallel to the nearshore contours and shoreline.

    Bracklesham Bay is therefore a swash aligned shoreline, whereas Selsey Bill to Pagham Harbour is a classic drift aligned shoreline. Wave shoaling and refraction is complicated by the presence of the submerged offshore reefs, shoals, banks, scarps and troughs.

    The Mixon, in particular, protects the southernmost shoreline from waves from the west and south-west, but the high incident angle of their approach is least modified immediately west of Selsey Bill. Wave climate for any one location on this coastline is a result of complex relationships between offshore to inshore transformation as a function of shoreface width and water depth; seabed relief; approach angles and interaction between wave and tidally induced currents in the breaker zone.

    Generally, waves steepen where tidal currents flow in opposition to dominant wind wave direction of approach. Overfalls at specific tidal states add further complications.

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    Given this complexity, it has been difficult to develop a quantitative wave climate. For annual recurrence, the maximum wave heights obtained were: Inshore breaking wave heights, and incident angle of approach, directly control potential rates of longshore sediment transport, and are one basic explanation for the spatial variations summarised in Section 3. Potential sensitivities to likely climate change scenarios were then tested by examining the extent to which the total and net longshore energy for each scenario varied with respect to the present situation.

    These have been supplemented in recent decades by beach replenishment at several sites. Tidal currents are not considered to be an independent mechanism of sustained onshore transport, but wave and tidal stream interaction creates complex patterns of turbulence that can entrain sediment. The bank comprises mostly weed- rafted flint clasts deposited as a result of turbulence generated by interaction of waves and tidal currents off the apex of Selsey Bill Jolliffe and Wallace The source of this material is gravel that "carpets" the sea floor south and east of Selsey Bill see Coastal Evolution in Section 1.

    Some of this is so well compacted as to be immobile at bed stresses experienced here. It is believed that shingle is periodically transported onshore from the spit to feed adjacent beaches when waves approach from the south or south-west Lewis and Duvivier ; Wallace ; Posford Duvivier, Evidence for this is mainly circumstantial and comprises reported observations and air photos.

    These sources suggest that beach levels opposite the spit are maintained by sudden onshore-directed influxes of shingle induced by high energy storm waves.

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    A good example occurred between January and Marchwhen the beach to the west of the drift divide at Selsey benefited from a strong pulse of onshore gravel feed.

    This mechanism may be confirmed by the limited actual littoral drift, but substantial accretion to the north-east of Selsey Bill. However, an "outer circulation" of weed-dragged shingle may occupy an anticlockwise pathway that links several offshore banks and reefs with northern East Beach and Church Norton beach Joliffe, ; Wallace, The circulation may be vital in replenishing the Kirk Arrow spit during intervals between onshore influxes.

    Estimations of this process are made especially complex by the fact that the main source area would appear to be a pavement-like area of well- consolidated cobbles that would not normally be disturbed by wave action. The growth of weed kelp holdfasts is therefore crucial to initial clast displacement, a process that will be dependant on fluctuations in water temperature, nutrient supply and other environmental controls in addition to wave and current induced stresses.

    Air photos indicate gravel influxes from the bank to the shore during the periods, and and corresponding extensions of the bank shoreward such that they temporarily attach to the shore. This suggests that gravel is transported onshore from the inshore end of the bank by shoaling waves approaching from the south.

    Lewis and Duvivier concluded that this feed occurs in pulses, separated by intervening periods of erosion, but averaged 5,m3a This estimate is based on the quantity of feed necessary to maintain beach levels over longer-term periods, in spite of output by littoral drift and beach drawdown under high-energy wave conditions.

    Gifford Associated Consultants propose the higher figure of approximately 10, m3a-1, but this also includes an estimate of the quantity gravel that is moved eastwards of the Selsey peninsula. Wallace examined accretion behind groynes constructed in at Selsey Bill and estimated 15, m3 of gravel to have accumulated over a four month period 46, m3a-1 if maintained over a year.

    Wallace also calculated that 5 million cubic metres of shingle have accumulated south of the entrance to Pagham Harbour sincegiving a mean rate of 41, m3a-1, a value that corresponds well with the four month estimate from The major sources are regarded as net onshore supply from both the Kirk Arrow Spit and from the nearshore Inner Owers bank see belowand his figures would appear to include both.
    The Company was born more than twenty years earlier, in Hale, who had become manager byat around which time they moved to Whittal Street.

    This address became that of the famous "Bisley Works" subsequently stamped on so many of the company's products. The product range became most comprehensive and included all mannner of especially built target service rifles, sights and ancillaries, imported and other British manufacturers' rifles, cleaning and maintenance paraphernalia, targetry, ammunition and, of course, Parkerifling.

    Hale became a director at some point prior to Parker's son Alfred J. Parker was also working in the business by the latter half of the century's first decade. Byyoung Alfred was designing aperture sights for the firm and performing remarkably at Bisley with a 'Long' Lee-Enfield fitted with one of his own sights.

    Tippinsa contemporary armourer, and himself a fine shotto return to the family business. Prior toAlfred left to set up his own company; Alfred J. For many years until recently the business closed late inthe firm was at the "Armoury Works" in Moseley Road on the outskirts of Birmingham city. Here he produced the first Twin Zero rear aperture sight - a folding version.

    AroundArthur Hale's involvement with A. Parker had reached a significance which led to the change of company name to Parker-Hale; so it has remained to this day. It seems that there must have been some distancing between A. Parker and his son and, although their product ranges were quite similar, many identical items were separately named although probably bought-in from the same source.

    To the right is an image of the muzzle crown stamping. The section through the brass olive used at the muzzle can just be defined. Parkerifling acquired a superb reputation for accuracy, entirely well founded. The quality of the sleeves was such that the claim of improved grouping over some new rifles was not unwarranted.

    Even now, rifles refurbished in this way half a century ago will perform to a high standard, such was the quality of steel and workmanship. A tired barrel could be brought back to very useful life with a significant saving over the cost of a total replacement. Alongside is an image of a sales display cutaway of a Parkerifled barrel. The sleeving joint can be clearly seen.

    The company advertisements often carried remarkable testimonials to their workmanship and the success of their rifling system. Copies of such advertisements published over the forty years between and are shown below. They make fascinating reading. This image and the one below it.

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